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Create a Sine Wave Generator Using SystemVerilog

Comments(5)Filed under: Functional Verification, SystemVerilog, IES, AMS, Incisive Enterprise Simulator (IES), IES-XL, Incisive

Two capabilities in SystemVerilog allow for the creation of a module that can produce a sine wave as an output: the ability to pass real values through port connections and DPI.

Obviously, to produce a sine wave, you need access to the sin function. This is where DPI is handy to add the math functions to your simulation. Here is an example of a package I created to contain the math functions:

package math_pkg;

  //import dpi task      C Name = SV function name

  import "DPI" pure function real cos (input real rTheta);

  import "DPI" pure function real sin (input real rTheta);

  import "DPI" pure function real log (input real rVal);

  import "DPI" pure function real log10 (input real rVal);

endpackage : math_pkg

The import"DPI" construct defines a new function that you can use in your code that refers to a C function. In the case of the math functions listed above, they already exist in the libmath.so library built into Linux and so there is no additional code required. Now that I have my math functions, I can create my module.

module sine_wave(output real sine_out);

  import math_pkg::*;

 

  parameter  sampling_time = 5;

  const real pi = 3.1416;

  real       time_us, time_s ;

  bit        sampling_clock;

  real       freq = 20;

  real       offset = 2.5;

  real       ampl = 2.5;

 

  always sampling_clock = #(sampling_time) ~sampling_clock;

 

  always @(sampling_clock) begin

    time_us = $time/1000;

    time_s = time_us/1000000;

  end

  assign sine_out = offset + (ampl * sin(2*pi*freq*time_s));

endmodule

Here I have used import in a different context. In this case import is used to make the code in my package available to the scope in which I import it. Now when I call the sinn function, it will use the DPI code from math_pkg to execute the function.

The sine_wave module also shows the use of passing a real value through a port. The output sine_out is of type real and is computed using the sin function.

SystemVerilog allows a real variable to be used as a port. The limitation is that a real variable can only be driven by a single driver. If that is a problem, you can make the module a Verilog AMS module and define the real variable as a wreal (real wire). By using wreal, you can have multiple drivers and use a variety of resolution types to solve any conflicts.

Tim Pylant

Comments(5)

By S. Mutchnik on July 16, 2009
Hi Tim, I had this same problem before and used something else I found:

A function that has a sin approximation, input is real, and you invoke the function at the desired clock rate and supplying the desired input, here is the code:

`define PI 3.14159265

  function real sin;

     input x;

     real x;

     real x1,y,y2,y3,y5,y7,sum,sign;

     begin

         sign = 1.0;

         x1 = x;

         if (x1<0)

           begin

               x1 = -x1;

               sign = -1.0;

           end

         while (x1 > `PI/2.0)        

           begin

               x1 = x1 - `PI;

               sign = -1.0*sign;

           end  

         y = x1*2/`PI;

         y2 = y*y;

         y3 = y*y2;

         y5 = y3*y2;

         y7 = y5*y2;

         sum = 1.570794*y - 0.645962*y3 +

               0.079692*y5 - 0.004681712*y7;

         sin = sign*sum;

     end

  endfunction // sin  


By tpylant on July 16, 2009
That works great! I just put your code in my package in place of the "import...sin" and it worked like a champ.
Thanks for sharing,
Tim

By S. Mutchnik on July 17, 2009
If we are at it already, here is the COS function, Root of 2, Natural base LOG, LOG 2 and LOG 10 (best to have all these and the SIN function together  in the same file since they may call on each other):

// COS function

  function real cos;

     input x;

     real x;

     begin

         cos = sin(x + `PI / 2.0);

     end

  endfunction

// ROOT of 2  

  function real rootof2;

     input n;

     integer n;

     real power;

     integer i;

     begin

         power = 0.82629586;

         power = power / 10000000.0;

         power = power + 1.0;

         i = -23;

         if (n >= 1)

           begin

               power = 2.0;

               i = 0;

           end

         for (i=i; i< n; i=i+1)

           begin

               power = power * power;

           end

         rootof2 = power;

     end

  endfunction // rootof2

  // does LOG_N of a number

  function real log_n;

     input x;

     real x;

     real re,log_2;

     integer i;

     begin

         if (x <= 0.0)

           begin

               $display("log N illegal argument:",x);

               $stop;

               log_n = 0.0;

           end

         else

           begin  

               if (x<1.0)

                 re = 1.0/x;

               else

                 re = x;

               log_2 = 0.0;

               for (i=7; i>=-23; i=i-1)

                 begin

                     if (re > rootof2(i))

                       begin

                           re = re/rootof2(i);

                           log_2 = 2.0*log_2 + 1.0;

                       end

                     else

                       log_2 = log_2*2.0;

                 end

               if (x < 1.0)

                 log_n = -log_2/12102203.16;

               else

                 log_n = log_2/12102203.16;

           end

     end

  endfunction // log_n

  // does LOG2 of a number - using LOG_N

  function real log2;

     input x;

     real  x;

     begin

         log2  = log_n(x)/log_n(2.0);

     end

  endfunction // log2

  // does LOG10 of a number - using LOG_N

  function real log10;

     input x;

     real  x;

     begin

         log10  = log_n(x)/log_n(10.0);

     end

  endfunction // log10


By tpylant on July 17, 2009
Awesome!
Thanks,
Tim

By Alok Sharma on March 10, 2011
I have a signal generating sine wave. Need some code that can make sense out of it in terms of frequency, amplitude etc. and dump it in a file.
Any quick thoughts please,
Thanks,
Alok

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